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            High Alloy Materials
            Super Ferritics

            Title

            Super-ferritic Stainless Steels - The Cost Effective Answer for Heat Transfer Tubing

            Source

            CORROSION 2008, March 16 - 20, 2008 , New Orleans LA

            Copyright

            2008. NACE International

            Keywords

            High performance stainless steels, super-ferritic stainless steels, super-austenitic stainless steels, super-duplex stainless steels, heat exchanger tubing, stainless steel corrosion resistance, vibration, erosion,

            thermal conductivity

            Preview

            ABSTRACT

            Originally developed back in the late 1970's, the current generation of super-ferritic stainless steels have become a cost-effective choice for heat exchanger tubing. When they were first developed, the goal was to have an alternative

            to titanium grade 2 in applications such as seawater and other high chloride applications. At that time, titanium

            was in was high priced and had a long lead time, not unlike today. over the last 10 years, the majority of the

            seawater capable high- performance stainless steel literature and usage has been focused on super-austenitic (6% and 7% Mo alloys) and super duplex alloys. While the performance of these alloys is very good,

            today's nickel and molybdenum material prices have driven the price of these alloys skyward.

            The power industry has recognized the effectiveness super-ferritics and over 78,000,000 feet are in usage since

            beginning in early 1980. The low nickel and moderate molybdenum content for excellent chloride resistance,

            has driven a substantially increased use of the super-ferritic alloys. This paper traces usage in power plant heat exchanger applications and compares properties

            such as corrosion resistance, mechanical and physical properties and compares them to the other seawater

            and MIC resistant grades.

            INTRODUCTION

            Recent worldwide demand has driven nickel and molybdenum prices to record high values. Alloys containing

            significant amounts of nickel and molybdenum, such as the austenitic and duplex grades, have experienced

            significant price increases and some spot shortages have resulted in some regions. Today's super-austenitic

            prices are about three times the value of late 2003. With low nickel content and reasonable molybdenum content,

            super-ferritic stainless steels are now proving to be the most cost effective.

            Typical Chemical Composition of Super-Ferritic Alloys(available in full paper)
            UNS44660 Super Ferritic Alloyed SS Condenser Tubing

            In Power Station Equipments, The choice ofcondenser tubes is vital to the investment and maintenance costs

            of the whole equipments.LSI are going to forecast the direction of the market of application of superferritic

            stainless steel tubes in condensers and analysis the advantages ofsuper ferritic stainless steel tubes

            compared with normal austenitic stainlesssteel tubes and titanium tubes from the aspects of

            chemicalcompositions,anti-corrosion capabilities, physical properties and mechanicalproperties

            of super ferritic stainless steel tubes.

            Chemical Composition:

            S44660 super ferritic stainless steel tube istheir high contents of Chromium and Molybdenum, and it has

            Titanium and niobiumas stabilizing elements. The organization of material makes them with highstrength

            properties, good elongation and low rate of work hardening.

            Characteristics of material:

            Super ferritic stainless steel is a kind ofalloy be used for anti-pitting corrosion,crevise corrosion and stress corrosionunder the environment of chloride.

            It has good heat conductivities,highanti-chloridion corrosion and marine life corrosion, extremely high modulus ofelasticity,high fatigue strength and

            hardness impact attack resistance,coefficient of linear expansion will be the same as carbon steel and unit

            pricewill be equal or economic than titanium tubes.

            Weldability to other stainless steels

            Compared with Titanium, No easier to havehydrogen brittleness phenomenon.

            Dimension LSI provide:

            OD: 12.7-38.1mm

            WTH: 0.4-2.5mm

            Max. Length: 20 Meters

            Standards: ASME SA268,ASME SA688,ASMESA803,ASTM A268.

            This alloy is specifically designed forapplications where chloride induced pitting, crevice and stress corrosion

            cracking may be encountered and is used in:

            1.Electric Power Plant Condensers and FeedwaterHeaters

            2.BOP Exchangers

            3.Various Heat Exchangers in Chemical,Petrochemical and Refining Applications

            4.Desalination Heat Exchangers

            5.Flue Gas Handling Systems


            One industry that has adopted high performance stainless steels is power production. Kovach6 has summarized

            the history and performance of high performance stainless steel use in power plant condensers through the late

            1990's. The meters of condenser tubing shipped in each year is documented separated by stainless group

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